Filtration is process to remove suspended solids from any fluid. The fluid passes through the filter media and the clear fluid called the filtrate. The solid that remains in the filter paper is called the residue. The purpose of the process is basically to remove solids from the fluid to make the material more useful. In some cases filtrate is important and in some case solids are important.
In a study the observation was made that all most any industries majority of component replacements or "loss of usefulness" is due to surface degradation. Particles generated as a result of abrasive wear are work hardened; thus they become harder than the parent surface. If these particles are not removed by proper filtration, they will recirculate and cause additional wear. This "chain reaction of wear" will continue and result in premature system component failure unless high-performance filtration is applied to break the chain.
ABRASION: Migration of foreign material which enters the fluid stream from system components that wears from close tolerances, vibration or shock. ABRASIVE: Any solid material such as gnt with erosive properties. ABRASIVES: Hard structurally strong solid. ABSOLUTE: An arbitrary term used to describe a degree of filtration. The filtration industry uses various methods of determining absolute ratings which are not necessarily interchangeable. Generally absolute references 100% removal of solids above a specified micron rating on a single pass basis. ABSOLUTE: The sum of gage pressure and atmospheric pressure. ABSORB: To take up by cohesive, chemical or molecular action. ABSORBENT: A filter medium that holds contaminants by mechamical means. When one substance soaks completely through another, sometimes undergoing a chemical change. ACIDITY: The quality, state or degree being acid. In lubricating oils, acidity denotes the presence of acid-type constituents whose concentration is usually defined in terms of a neutralization number. The constituents vary in nature and may or may not markedly influence the behavior of the fluid. ADDITIVE: A material usually chemical added to a product to impart new or unusual characteristics or to improve existing characteristics. ADSORB: To take up by adhesion of molecules of gases or dissolved substances to the surface of solid bodies resulting in high concentration of the gas or solution at place of contact. Gas or solution is condensed on the surface of the adsorbent while in adsorption the material absorbed penetrates throughout the mass of absorbent. ADSORBATE: The material which is adsorbed i.e. the gas, vapor or liquid which adheres or is chemically attracted to the surface of the solid. ADSORBENT: A material which adsorbs i.e. the solid which attracts and holds on its surface the gas, vapor or liquid. Also materials added to liquors to decolonize or purify by adsorbing the color or impurity fuller’s earth, activated carbon, activate alumina, etc. are all adsorbents. ADSORBENT: A filter medium primarily intended to hold soluble and insoluble contaminants on its surface by molecular adhesion. ADSORPTION: The natural phenomenon of a gas, vapor or liquid being attracted to and held on the surface of a solid. To some extent adsorption takes place on any solid surface but certain materials have sufficient adsorbent capacity because of the finely divided material to make them useful in such industrial applications as the purification and separation of gases and liquids. AGGLOMERATE: A group of two or more particles combined, joined or clustered by any means. AGGREGATE: A relatively stable assembly of dry particles formed under the influence of physical forces. AMBIENT: Surrounding. ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ASPHALTINE: Product of Partial Oxidation of Oil. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE: The force exerted on a unit area by the weight of the atmosphere. ATOM: Smallest particle of an element which retains properties of the element Example: Carbon atom. AUTOCLAVE: Sterilizing apparatus which uses steam at high pressure